NPPs or Non-Pollen Palynomorphs are micro-remains of organisms other than pollen such as cyanobacteria, fungi, invertebrates, testate amoebae, micro-algae and plant fragments that are routinely found in palynology slides. Since the 1970s, more than 1000 types have been described, and have proved to provide information that cannot be extracted from other proxies or when other proxies are absent. They are widely distributed but have restricted ecological ranges, therefore making them excellent tracers of environmental conditions. For example, freshwater algae provide records of turbidity, water chemistry, water depth, hydrological balance and catchment erosion. Spores of coprophilous fungi reflect animal grazing and past land use, other fungi indicate the presence of host plants and substrates, fires, diseases, or soil erosion. NPPs preserve very well in the substrate in which they have settled, sometimes better than pollen and plant spores!